1 - Studies published in Peer-Reviewed Journal

1.1 - The Potential Effect of Forbrain as an Altered Auditory Feedback Device
Carles Escera, Fran López-Caballero, and Natàlia Gorina-Caretaa
Brainlab-Cognitive Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, University of Barcelona
The Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona
Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu (IRSJD), Catalonia, Spain
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, April 2018, Vol. 61, 801-810. doi:10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-17-0072 - CLICK HERE

1.2 - Effect of Speech-Auditory Feedback Training (Forbrain®) on Cognitive Dysfunctions in Stroke Patients
Sun Jinju, Chen Changxiang, Li Shuxing, Li Dan
North China University of Science and Technology
Shandong Medical Journal, 2017, Vol. 57, Iss. 26

1.3 - Nursing Effect of Forbrain® Brain Cognitive Training on Cognitive Dysfunction among Patients with Stroke
Li Shuxing, Sun Jinju, Sun Dongmei, Chen Changxiang
College of Nursing and Rehabilitation, North China University of Science and Technology
China Meitan General Hospital
Medicine  and  Philosophy, Jun 2017, Vol. 38, No. 6B, Total No. 575

1.4 - Speech-auditory feedback training (Forbrain®) on Cognitive Dysfunctions in Stroke Patient
Sun Jinju, Chen Changxiang, Zhang Min, Dou Na, Li Shuxing, Li Dan
College of Nursing and Rehabilitation, North China University of Science and Technology
Journal of Behavioral Medicine and Brain Science, June 2017, Vol.26, No.6 Cerebrovascular Disease and Cognitive Dysfunction

2 - Studies submitted in Peer-Reviewed Journal

2.1 - A scientific single case study on speech, auditory processing and attentional strengthening with Forbrain
Dr. Carles Escera, Professor
Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C) and Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology University of Barcelona - 2014

2.2 - A single-case study of phasic boosting of attentional capabilities with Forbrain® on Stuttering
Dr. Carles Escera, Professor
Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C) and Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology University of Barcelona - 2015

3 - Clinical Studies

3.1 - Forbrain’s effect on the reading process
Beatriz Aguilar Guerrero, Language teacher
UNIR (Universidad Internacional de La Rioja - Universidad en Internet) - 2015

3.2 - Forbrain®’s effects on the reading speed and comprehension ability
A study conducted at the Mediterrani de La Ampolla School (Tarragona, Spain) - 2015

3.3 - The effect of sound therapy with Forbrain® on reading skills and auditory discrimination for students with reading difficulties
Dr.M.Estaki (Esteki), Assistant professor, 
Azad University, Psychology Department - 2017

4 - Studies in progress

4.1 - Impact of Speech treatment and Auditory Feedback training with Forbrain for Children with Speech Sound Disorder
Dr. Alycia Cummings, Assistant Professor, CCC-SLP
University of North Dakota, Communication Sciences and Disorders - 2016

4.2 - Determine if modifications in auditory amplitude using Forbrain can improve reading ability
Dr. Scott Decker, Assistant Professor
University of South Carolina, Department of Psychology - 2015

4.3 - Phasic boosting of attentional capabilities with a Forbrain® session
Dr. Carles Escera, Professor
Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C) and Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology University of Barcelona - 2015

 


 

1.1 - The Potential Effect of Forbrain as an Altered Auditory Feedback Device
Carles Escera, Fran López-Caballero, and Natàlia Gorina-Caretaa

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to run a proof of concept on a new commercially available device, Forbrain® (Sound For Life Ltd/Soundev, Luxemburg, model UN38.3), to test whether it can modulate the speech of its users.

Method: Participants were instructed to read aloud a text of their choice during 3 experimental phases: baseline, test, and posttest, while wearing a Forbrain® headset. Critically, for half of the participants (Forbrain group), the device was turned on during the test phase, whereas for the other half (control group), the device was kept off. Voice recordings were analyzed to derive 6 quantitative measures of voice quality over each of the phases of the experiment.

Results: A significant Group × Phase interaction was obtained for the smoothed cepstral peak prominence, a measure of voice harmony, and for the trendline of thelong-termaveragespectrum, ameasureof voice robustness, this latter surviving Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of Forbrain® in modifying the speech of its users. It is suggested that Forbrain® works as an altered auditory feedback device. It may hence be used as a clinical device in speech therapy clinics, yet further studies are warranted to test its usefulness in clinical groups.

See the full report here

 

 


 

1.2 - Effect of Speech-Auditory Feedback Training on cognitive dysfunctions in stroke patients
Sun Jinju, Chen Changxiang, Li Shuxing, Li Dan

Objective: This experiment was undertaken to determine the effect of speech-auditory feedback training on cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients. 

Methods: 80 stroke patients with cognitive dysfunction were randomly divided into experimental group (n=40) and control group (n= 40). The control group received conventional rehabi1itation, whi1e, additionally, 
the experimental group also received Forbrain speech-auditory feedback training, 20 minutes per session, 5 sessions per week, for 10 weeks in total. All participants were assessed with Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA) and the Livingston Cognitive Assessment Scale II (LOTCA-II) before and after the intervention.  

Results: No difference between scores of the two groups were noted before the experiment (P> 0.05). After the intervention, the total score of MoCA, the scores of attention and concentration, visuospatial construction, language, abstract thinking, memory, orientation of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group; also, 
the total score of LOTCA-Ⅱ, the score of visual perception, visual movement, thinking operation, attention and concentration increased as 
compared to those of  the control group (P <0.05). 

Conclusion: Speech-auditory feedback training can improve cognitive functions of stroke patients. 

See the full report here

 

 


 

1.3 - Nursing Effect of Forbrain® Brain Cognitive Training on Cognitive Dysfunction among Patients with Stroke
Li Shuxing, Sun Jinju, Sun Dongmei, Chen Changxiang

The  scores  of  visuospatial  construction,  attention  and  concentration,  memory,  language,  abstract  thinking,  and  the  total  score  in  experiment  group  1  were  significantly  higher  than  those  in  experiment  group  2and  control  group  (P  <0.05);  the  difference  between  experimental  group  2  and  control  group  after  intervention  was  not  statistically  significant  (P>  0.05).  In  such  light,  it  can  be  concluded  that  cognitive  training  provided  by  Forbrain®is  effective  in  improving  cognitive  functions  of  stroke  patients.

In  conclusion,  Forbrain® brain cognitive training can effectively improve the cognitive functions of stroke  patients.  It  is  simple  to  apply  and  guarantee  high  patient  compliance,  serving  as  a  great  intervention  modality  for  rehabilitation  of  cognitive  function. However, limitations  on  time  and  sample  size  necessitate  further  researcheswith  larger  sample  size  and  refined  grouping  techniques. 

See the full report here

 

 


 


 

1.4 - Speech-auditory feedback training on cognitive dysfunctions in stroke patients
Sun Jinju, Chen Changxiang, Zhang Min, Dou Na, Li Shuxing, Li Dan

 

Objective: This experiment was undertaken to observe the effect of speech-auditory feedback trainingby Forbrainon cognitive dysfunctionsin stroke patients.

Methods: 120 stroke patients with cognitive dysfunctionswere randomly divided into experimental group 1(n=40), experimenta1 group2 (n=40)and control group(n= 40).The control groupreceivedconventional rehabi1itation, whi1e additionally, the experimental group 1 received standard Forbrain speech-auditory feedback training and the experimental group 2 receivedanon-standard Forbrain speech-auditoryfeedback training. All the subjectswere assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA) at baseline and conclusion of the study.

Results: After a 10-week intervention, the scores of visuospatial construction (2.05±0.50),attention and concentration(2.15±0.36),memory (2.18±0.59) and the total score of MoCA(18.75±2.05) in experimental group 1 were higher than those in experimental group 2 (1.80±0.46,1.90±0.441, 1.90±0.55, 17.53±2.41) and control group(1.78±0.53),1.85±0.36,1.70±0.56, 17.18±2.37) (P<0.05).The scores of language in experimental group1 (2.03±0.48) and experimental group2(1.85±0.53) were higher than those in control group(1.70±0.46) (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Speech-auditory feedback training, provided by Forbrain,can improve cognitive functionsof stroke patients.

See the full report here


 


 

2.1 - A scientific single case study on speech, auditory processing
and attentional strengthening with Forbrain®

Carles Escera, PhD, Professor
Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C) and Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology University of Barcelona

 

As a first step in researching the effects of a limited use of Forbrain, the results suggest that there is a real basis for the claims that Forbrain can improve voice quality and the
executive attentional mechanisms and memory. The results suggest that Forbrain® could be helpful in improving focus in those who have attention disorders such as ADHD, and those who have difficulties with speech production and auditory processing. Moreover, any improvement in attention, such as was demonstrated in this study, could have benefits to everyone on memory, focus and fluency


Download the summary report here

 



2.2 - A single-case study of phasic boosting of attentional capabilities with Forbrain® on Stuttering
Carles Escera, PhD, Professor
 

The  present  results,  regarding  voice  quality,  are  in  agreement  with  what  was  observed  in  the  previous  single-case  study  in  a  healthy  participant,  and  with  those  obtained  in  the  group  study  carried  out  with  a  similar  design.  Considering  the  objective  nature  of  the  measures  retrieved  from  voice  quality  through  spectral  analysis,  the  present  results  support  the  role  of  Forbrain®  in  improving  voice  quality  when  it  is  on  mode,  and  suggest  a  role  in  improving  speech  fluency  in  people  suffering  from  stuttering. 

See the full report here

 


 

 

 

 

3.1 - Forbrain®’s effects on the reading speed and comprehension ability

This Neurosensory stimulation program was used with 8 primary school students:  4 of them in first grade, 2 in second grade and 2 in sixth grade over a 2-month period, with 4 weekly sessions, giving a total of 20 Forbrain® sessions per child. To measure the students’ progress and evaluate the program’s benefit in the school, we used the standard reading speed test GALÍ in Catalonian.  Forbrain® improved all of the participating student’s reading skills. We also took into consideration that Forbrain has an important effect in other aspects of the child’s development as well.

The average of progression based on the speed test GALI has been evaluated at 25%.

See the full report here

 


 


 

3.2 - Forbrain®’s effect on the reading process
Master Degree thesis by Beatriz Aguilar Guerrero

This experimental study forms part of the thesis written by Beatriz Aguilar Guerrero at the UNIR for her Master’s Degree in Neuropsychology and Education. Its aim is to study Forbrain’s working mechanisms and quantify the possible improvements on the reading processes of children in the first years of primary school. The study was carried out using experimental and control groups as well as pre- and post-use evaluations. The children used Forbrain daily for 10-minute sessions over 10 days.

During this time, the children read stories and texts adapted to their reading level. To quantify the results, the PROLEC-r battery was used in its simplified version. This made it possible to obtain remarkable results both in capability and execution in the following variables: number of letters, pseudo-words, grammatical structures and reading comprehension. The statistical analysis of the resulting data showed excellent results. The students using Forbrain showed significant improvement in all tests when compared to the control group.

Based on these results, it can be concluded that Forbrain improves the cognitive capacities involved in the reading process owing to the modification and improvement of the plasticity on the brain structures involved in the reading process. This exercise with Forbrain allowed the students to improve their ability to read and to decode each sound, word, pseudo-word and syntactic structure which is at the heart of the reading process. The students also improved all lexical, syntactic and semantic processes fundamental for their learning abilities. The improvement experienced by the students, particularly in reading pseudo-words, constitutes an important development in the organization of graphene-phoneme correspondence or phonological decoding. This is fundamental in all reading processes and has been the main contributing element to the development and reorganization of phonologic awareness through the auditory system. The auditory system’s inherent plasticity allows for radical improvements in learning capabilities through the input of modified sound stimuli via bone conduction. The transmission of sound via bone conduction is critical because it exerts a corrective action on the Spt area facilitating the sounds’ modification process in this area.

This allows for improvements to become noticeable even after using Forbrain for a few minutes. Our research’s objective was to study how Forbrain functions and to test its effectiveness, which was corroborated by the results obtained.

Forbrain use is highly recommended to prevent and work with learning difficulties related to phonological awareness, decoding and auditory discrimination in general and more specifically with the phono-articulatory loop. 

See the full report here

 



 

3.3 - The effect of sound therapy with Forbrain® on reading skills and auditory discrimination for students with reading difficulties
Dr.M.Estaki (Esteki), Assistant professor
 

Background: The lack of success in acquiring reading skills in early school years, can deeply prevent students from achievement in most other educational subjects. Research shows that most of children with reading and learning complications suffer from problems in auditory processing. It may therefore be suitable for those who have reading difficulties be treated with sound therapy. This study aimed to assess the effect of sound therapy with Forbrain on reading skills and auditory discrimination for students with reading difficulties.

Material and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental design with pre-posttest and control group. The sample group was 20 students who were studying in elementary school (second and third grade). They were selected by available sampling method and assigned randomly to two experimental and control groups. Data were collected by Reading & Dyslexia Test (Karami nori & Moradi 1378) and Wepman auditory discrimination test (WADT 1987). After pre-test the experimental group for 20 sessions was trained by sound therapy with Forbrain while the control group received no intervention. Then, the subjects of two groups were tested by post-test. The statistical models were the Analyze of Covariance (ANCOVA). 

Results: In the post-test, mean of reading skills (p= 0.000< 0.001), and auditory discrimination (p=0.000< 0.001) in experimental group decreased significantly. This difference also was significant for all subscales of reading skills except Rhyme and Reading non-words (p=0.07, 0.96) 

Conclusions: The findings show that sound therapy with Forbrain  has significant effect on reading skills and auditory discrimination in students with reading difficulties.

See the full report here

 


 

4.1 - Impact of Speech treatment and Auditory Feedback training with Forbrain for Children with Speech Sound Disorder
Alycia Cummings, Associate Professor, CCC-SLP
 

Five to eight percent of all children in the United States have a speech sound disorder (SSD). Children with SSD have difficulty producing sounds of their target language system. Some of these children also have difficulty perceiving and categorizing speech sounds. It is presently unknown what underlying mechanisms might account for the communication problems children with SSD encounter. One possible explanation is that children with SSD cannot produce speech sounds correctly because they have poorly specified phonological representations, which are the result of inaccurate speech sound perception. Thus, speech sound production errors may stem from imprecise speech perception and its resulting sparse phonological representations.

We propose to use electrophysiological measures (event-related potentials, ERPs) to examine how phonological representations and their associated auditory sensory responses change in conjunction with two traditional speech treatment approaches: one that does and one that does not involve auditory feedback with Forbrain®. A better understanding of phonological representations and the auditory sensory system in children with SSD will inform how speech evaluations and treatment are best conducted by speech-language pathologists.

Our major objective is to characterize how traditional speech treatment (with and without auditory feedback with Forbrain®) alters the auditory neural responses to sounds targeted in treatment. Since SSD has a relatively high incidence, a good understanding of its underlying nature can inform its clinical management, which could ultimately improve the lives of the affected children and their families. Specifically, children who receive treatment for their SSD have better long-term social, academic, and communicative prognoses than those who do not receive treatment. Here, we propose to use ERP measures to assess auditory sensory processing of speech syllables in children with SSD.

Aim:    To assess how ERP auditory sensory responses evoked by English syllables change over time. This will allow for a better understanding of how the neural mechanisms associated with speech perception in SSD change after a period of traditional speech treatment, or intervention that combines traditional treatment and auditory feedback. It is predicted that the speech treatment program that includes auditory feedback with Forbrain® will enhance the phonological representations of children with SSD above and beyond what occurs with traditional treatment alone, resulting in ERP amplitude and latency waveform changes.

Treatment:

Speech sound treatment for children with SSD. Treatment will follow proven Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) methods of previous treatment studies of children with SSD (Cummings & Barlow, 2011; Gierut et al., 1996; Gierut & Morrisette, 2010; Morrisette & Gierut, 2002). A single-subject staggered multiple baseline design will be used in this treatment program, as it has been shown to be useful in the study of treatment of communicative disorders (Connell & Thompson, 1986; McReynolds & Kearns, 1983; McReynolds & Thompson, 1986). Following procedures for this design, the children with SSD will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: traditional speech treatment alone (Tx) or traditional speech treatment with auditory feedback training via Forbrain® (AFTx). Every child will be evaluated in a baseline period in which no treatment was provided, followed by speech treatment.

Consistent with efficient and effective Evidence-Based Practice procedures used previously by the PI (Cummings & Barlow, 2011) and others (Gierut et al., 1996; Gierut & Morrisette, 2010; Gierut & Neumann, 1992; Gierut, 1992; Morrisette & Gierut, 2002), treatment will be delivered in two phases: Imitation and Spontaneous Production. Treatment will be provided two times weekly in 1-hour sessions, for up to 14 sessions. Each treatment sound will be targeted through the production of five words that will be initially introduced to the child using a storybook reading format. During the Imitation phase of treatment, each child will be shown a picture of the target word and will be asked to repeat the clinician’s verbal model until achieving either a pre-established performance- or time-based criterion, whichever comes first. Specifically, imitation treatment will continue until a child maintains 75% accurate production of the treated phoneme over two consecutive sessions (i.e. performance-based criterion) or until seven consecutive sessions are completed (i.e. time-based criterion) (Gierut et al., 1996). During the Spontaneous Production phase, each child will produce the treated phoneme without a model. In other words, the words targeted in treatment will be elicited by having the children name pictures, label objects, retell stories, and so on. This phase of treatment will continue until the child maintains either a performance-based criterion of 90% accurate production of the treated phoneme over three consecutive sessions, or a time-based criterion of seven consecutive sessions, whichever comes first (Gierut et al., 1996). It is expected that children will spend approximately 3 months in treatment.

Auditory feedback training for children with SSD. Half of the children with SSD will receive auditory feedback via Forbrain® during their twice-weekly speech treatment sessions. Each child will wear the Forbrain® device for 20 minutes during each treatment session. Specifically, the child will put on the Forbrain® device immediately after the reading of the treatment story and then wear it continually for the subsequent 20 minutes of treatment. This selected period of time in treatment sessions typically involves the shaping/elicitation of the treatment sound in isolation, as well as the production of the treatment words in drill play activities. Once the Forbrain® wear-time is complete, the child will remove the device for the remainder of the treatment session.

See the full report here

 



 4.2 - Determine if modifications in auditory amplitude using Forbrain can improve reading ability

 

The purpose of this study is to determine if modifications in auditory amplitude using the Forbrain can improve reading ability. Forbrain dynamic filter isolates the user's voice and changes the sound frequency to change auditory processing. Additionally, auditory processing has been found to be a significant deficit in children with developmental reading disorders. Therefore, training the auditory processing components for children has potential to improve reading ability. The current study aims to identify if using the forbrain device during reading instruction increases students’ reading ability.

The University of South Carolina’s Dr. Scott L. Decker, an Assistant Professor in the School Psychology program USC, is coordinating with Richland County’s Tutor Eau Claire Dyslexia Center Director, Tracey Ely, in order to obtain the data for this study. Data collection will take place at the Tutor Eau Claire center by USC study staff. There are approximately 10 measures that will be administered, including tests from the Woodcock Johnson IV and AIMS Web. A standardized battery of all assessment measures will be determined for both clinical and research purposes.

The current study will have a control group that receives only the Orton Gillingham intervention, and the experimental group will receive the Orton Gillingham intervention as well as the Forbrain intervention.  Each group will receive Orton Gillingham for 45 minutes, twice a week, until the last session on November 19th. The first session will be held on September 8th.  On November 20th preliminary intervention data will be achieved.(…)

Research Consortium on Children and Families
www.sc.edu/research/childfamily

Scott L. Decker, PhD
https://sites.google.cHi om/site/acnlabatusc/​

 



4.3 - Phasic boosting of attentional capabilities with a Forbrain® session.
Carles Escera, PhD, Professor

Objective:
The purpose of this empirical study will be to replicate the effects of a single fifteen minute session of Forbrain® use on neuronal, physiological and behavioral measures in a group of healthy participants, as previously described in our proof of concept single case study (Forbrain N1).

Work: 
We will focus our testing only on the parameters that yielded significant results in our previous study: the ATTN test, heart rate, skin conductance, and voice variables. The design will be very similar to that used in the previous study, with the following changes:  1) instead of a single case design (N=1 participant) there now be 32 subjects (N=32 participants) and 2) half (n=16) of the participants will be randomly assigned to a control (“placebo”) group in which the Forbrain® device will be kept off during the whole session. Because in our initial study robust effects appeared after one single session of use, we will have one single session per participant. However, before starting the actual experiment, we will collect some dummy data on all three measurements to allow for the participant to become acquainted with the laboratory procedures and thus avoid the undesired effects for heart rate we observed during session 1 in our previous experiment. The protocol for the study will be therefore as follows:

  1. Accommodation to the laboratory procedures
  2. ATTN test pre-use (2 runs of 10 minutes)
  3. Physiological and voice recordings during reading (Forbrain off) – (7 minutes)
  4. Physiological and voice recordings during reading (Forbrain on) – (15 minutes). Notice however that for the control (placebo) group, Forbrain will be kept off during the whole laboratory session.
  5. Physiological and voice recordings during reading (Forbrain off) – (7 minutes)
  6. ATTN test post-use (2 runs of 10 minutes)

Impact:
The proposed design, a controlled-placebo, eventually double-blind study (at least, the participants won’t be informed about which group they are in, and the researcher analyzing the data will ignore the group assignment until the conclusions are drawn), will provide the strongest evidence in support of the phasic effects of Forbrain. We expect to replicate our previous single case findings. If so, it is anticipated that a highly impactful scientific publication will result from this study.

Methodology:
To test  for attentional capabilities, concentration and the ability to cope with involuntary attention, the participants’ performance on a task in which they have to cope with distracters, as well as the brain responses triggered by these distracters (the distraction potential --DP, including mismatch negativity –MMN, novelty-P3, and reorienting negativity –RON) will be used (see Escera et al., 1998; Escera and Corral, 2007). [ATT test].

In addition, the effects of Forbrain® on voice quality and on emotional arousal will be tested. The former will be checked by recording the participant's voice during reading; the latter will be checked by measuring electrodermal activity (EDA) and the electrocardiogram (EKG) to derive heart rate.

Subjects. A total of N=32 participants will be enrolled. They will be healthy university students (age range 18-35 years; male or female) with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders and normal hearing (hearing level will be determined through standard audiometry). Music expertise will be disregarded, as it has been shown to enhance the encoding of speech sound features and auditory discrimination.

The experiment will be conducted in accordance with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). Before the experimental session, all the details of the research (except the hypotheses) will be explained to the participant, who will be informed also about the characteristics of the methods (EEG).

During the active speech protocol, the participant will be given a self-selected text and will be instructed to read aloud during a period of 15 consecutive minutes, while wearing the Forbrain® device.

Stimulus presentation and EEG recording. [ATT test] To measure involuntary attention control, a distraction paradigm will be used. In this paradigm, participants are instructed to discriminate visual stimuli (consonants and vowels) while ignoring the preceding auditory stimulus. The sound-letter pairs are presented every 1.2 seconds, and subjects are instructed to press the corresponding response button (consonant/vowel) as fast and as accurately as possible. Critically, most of the sounds consist of a repeated tone pip, which is occasionally replaced by a “distracting” novel sound. In addition, brain responses are recorded to the distracting sounds to isolate the neural signatures of the three stages of involuntary attention control: detecting the distracter (MMN), orienting of attention (novelty-P3), restoring attention to primary task performance (RON) (Escera and Corral, 2007).

The EEG will be recorded at the premises of the Brainlab-Cognitive Neuroscience Research Group (www.ub.edu/brainlab), located in the Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, by means of a SynAmpsRT amplifier. Acquisition parameters will be set to: 20000 kHz sampling rate, filter settings: 0.5-2000 Hz, and recordings will be obtained from at least 7 scalp locations (FPz, Fz, Cz, F3, F4, C3, C4); larger set-ups may be considered to record the DP.

An independent component analysis (ICA) blind procedure will be used to scan all EEG epochs for artifacts, and those with artifacts will be excluded from the averages. Responses will be analyzed separately by individual and condition. The dependent variables will be: the harmonic amplitudes of the FFR elicited to the CV /da/ in the two contexts (silent and speech-in-noise); the amplitude and latency of the MMN elicited to F0, INT, voD, voI deviants; and the response time and hit rate to visual targets preceded by repeated and novel sounds as well as the amplitude of the MMN, novelty-P3 and RON responses elicited to the distracters. A statistical approach based on time series analysis will be applied to the data.

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